Friday, May 20, 2011

Module 2: Deductive Method

DEDUCTIVE METHOD




              Deductive method is based on deduction. In this approach we proceed from general to particular and from abstract and concrete. At first the rules are given and then students are asked to apply these rules to solve more problems. This approach is mainly used in Algebra, Geometry and Trigonometry because different relations, laws and formulae are used in these sub branches of mathematics. In this approach, help is taken from assumptions, postulates and axioms of mathematics.      It is used for teaching mathematics in higher classes.
Deductive approach proceeds form
Ø  General rule to specific instances
Ø  Unknown to know
Ø  Abstract rule to concrete instance
Ø  Complex to simple

Steps in deductive approach
Deductive approach of teaching follows the steps given below for effective teaching
ü  Clear recognition of the problem
ü  Search for a tentative hypothesis
ü  Formulating of a tentative hypothesis
ü  Verification






Example 1:
Find a2 X a10 = ?
Solution:
General : am X an = am+n  
Particular: a2 X a10 = a2+10    = a12

Example 2:
Find (102)2   = ?
Solution:
General: (a+b)2 =a2+b2+2ab
Particular: (100+2) 2 = 1002 + 22 + (2 x 100 x 2)
                                = 10000+4+400= 10404

MERITS
Ø  It is short and time saving method.
Ø  It is suitable for all topics.
Ø  This method is useful for revision and drill work
Ø  There is use of learner’s memory
Ø  It is very simple method
Ø  It helps all types of learners
Ø  It provides sufficient practice in the application of various mathematical formulae and rules.
Ø  The speed and efficiency increase by the use of this method.
Ø  Probability in induction gets converted into certainty by this method.

DEMERITS
Ø  It is not a psychological method.
Ø  It is not easy to understand
Ø  It taxes the pupil’s mind.
Ø  It does not impart any training is scientific method
Ø  It is not suitable for beginners.
Ø  It encourages cramming.
Ø  It puts more emphasis on memory.
Ø  Students are only passive listeners.
Ø  It is not found quite suitable for the development of thinking, reasoning, and discovery.



Applicability of Deductive Approach
          Deductive approach is suitable for giving practice to the student in applying the formula or principles or generalization which has been already arrived at.  This method is very useful for fixation and retention of facts and rules as at provides adequate drill and practice.

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