Project method is of American origin and is an outcome of Dewey’s philosophy or pragmatism. However, this method is developed and advocated by Dr.Kilpatrick.
Ø Project is a plan of action – oxford’s advanced learner’s dictionary
Ø Project is a bit of real life that has been imported into school – Ballard
Ø A project is a unit of wholehearted purposeful activity carried on preferably in its natural setting – Dr.Kilpatrick
Ø A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its most natural setting – Stevenson
Basic principles of project method
Psychological principles of learning
v Learning by doing
v Learning by living
v Children learn better through association, co-operation and activity.
Psychological laws of learning
v Law of readiness
v Law of exercise
v Law of effect
STEPS INVOLVED IN PROJECT METHOD
1) Providing / creating the situations
2) Proposing and choosing the project
3) Planning the project
4) Execution of the project
5) Evaluation of the project
6) Recording of the project.
step 1. Creating the situation: The teacher creates problematic situation in front of students while creating the appropriate situation student’s interest and abilities should be given due importance.
step 2. Proposing and choosing the project: while choosing a problem teacher should stimulate discussions by making suggestions. The proposed project should be according to the rear need of students. The purpose of the project should be well defined and understood by the children.
step 3. Planning the project: for the success of the project, planning of project is very import. The children should plan out the project under the guidance of their teacher.
step 4. Execution of the project: every child should contribute actively in the execution of the project. It is the longest step in the project.
step 5. Evaluation of the project: when the project is completed the teacher and the children should evaluate it jointly discussed whether the objectives of the project have been achieved or not.
step 6. Recording of the project: the children maintain a complete record of the project work. While recording the project some points like how the project was planned, what discussion were made, how duties were assigned, hot it was evaluate etc. should be kept in mind.
RUNNING OF A HOSTEL MESS
It involve the following steps
step 1. The number of hostellers will be recorded.
step 2. The expected expenditure will be calculated.
step 3. Expenditure on various heads will be allocated to the students.
step 4. Budget will be prepared with the help of the class.
step 5. The account of collections from amongst the students will be noted.
step 6. Actual expenditure will be incurred by the students
step 7. A chart of ‘balance diet’ for the hostellers will be prepared.
step 8. The time of breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner will be fixed and notified.
step 9. Execution of different programs stated above will be made.
step 10. Weight of each hostel will be checked after regular intervals, and the same will be put on record.
step 11. Punctuality in all the activities of the hostellers will be recorded.
step 12. Evaluation of the entire program, and then it will be typed out for the information of all concerned.
Some projects for mathematics
A few projects suitable for high school mathematics are listed below
v Execution of school bank.
v Running stationary stores in the school.
v Laying out a school garden.
v Laying a road.
v Planning and estimating the construction of a house
v Planning for an annual camp
v Executing the activities of mathematics clubs
v Collection of data regarding population, death rate, birth rate etc.
v This is based on various psychological laws and principles.
v It develops self-confidence and self-discipline among the students
v It provides ample scope for training.
v It provides score for independent work and individual development.
v It promotes habits of critical thinking and encourages the students to adopt problem-solving methods.
v This method the children are active participants in the learning task.
v This is based on principle of activity, reality, effect, and learning by doing etc.
v It develops discovery attitude in the child.
v It provides self-motivation as the students themselves select plan and execute the project.
Demerits It takes more time.
v The knowledge is not acquired in a sequential and systematic manner
v It is very difficult to complete the whole syllabus by the use of this method.
v It is not economical.
v Textbooks and instructional materials are hardly available.
v The project method does not provide necessary drill and practice for the learners of the subject.
v The project method is uneconomical in terms of time and is not possible to fit into the regular time table.
v Teaching is disorganised
v This method is not suitable for a fixed curriculum.
Though project method provides a practical approach to learning. It is difficult to follow this method for teaching mathematics. However this method may be tried along with formal classroom teaching without disturbing the school timetable. This method leads to understanding and develops the ability to apply knowledge. The teacher has to work as a careful guide during the execution of the project.